Pest evolution and enhancement of the durability of IPM solution

Pest evolution and enhancement of the durability of IPM solution

Activity leader:

Wopke VAN DER WERF (Wageningen University): wopke.vanderwerf@wur.nl - 31 (0)317 48 47 65

Access to:

PUBLICATIONS

Objectives:

Objectives of this research activity are to provide tools and concepts for using diversification of IPM to counteract the emergence of super strains of diseases, weeds and pests, and mitigate the negative consequences thereof.

This will be achieved by:

- Development of a suite of multi-scale generic models (in other words: model “train” ) for spread of air-borne plant diseases and evolution towards virulence and fungicide resistance;

- Parameterization and testing of generic multi-scale model train for spread of air-borne plant diseases using two key diseases in wheat – yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis forma specialis tritici, and septoria leaf blotch, cause by Mycosphearella graminicola. Spread of geno types will be measured at regional (multi-farm) as well as continental scale;

- Ex-ante designs for genotype deployment in space that make IPM strategies more durable and cropping systems more resistant towards invasion by new virulent or resistant pathogen strains (farm, regional and continental level);

- Rotation scale models for gene frequencies in weed populations under IPM in the context of weed rotations, and blueprints for strategies that replace reliance on herbicides by integrated options;

- Risk analysis of resistance development to biologicals, based on literature research and meta-analysis, and development of diversified granulosis virus preparations to overcome the problem of virus resistant codling moth.

Approach

All three tasks will be elaborated in close interaction with the "wheat cropping systems" activity, "maize cropping systems" activity, "pomefruit cropping systems" activity and "protected crops cropping systems" activity to ensure that the intermediate and end-results of research activity are implemented in the IPM development processes of these four "cropping systems" activities. Whilst the first final results of this research activity will not be available before Feb 2014, the founding concepts, as well as preliminary and intermediate results will be available early on

Description of Deliverables:

Risk analysis of resistance development towards natural antagonists of crop pests and diseases
New knowledge on the mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution that will be useful for the design of innovative IPM solutions for all studied farming systems.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION 

Blueprints for field level IPM strategies and spatial designs for resistant genotype deployment
Transparent, fast running, versatile multi-scale model train for simulating population dynamics, aerial spread and evolution of plant disease at multiple scales; from the field to the continent. This model will be included in the design of innovative IPM solutions.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION 

Empirically parameterized and verified rotation scale models for gene frequencies in weed populations under IPM in the context of crop rotation, and blueprints for strategies that replace reliance on herbicides by integrated options
A generic weed population dynamics model which predicts the evolution of weed communities in the context of IWM implementation and crop rotation.
Model scenarios illustrating the potential of IWM to replace one-wided herbicide-based management strategies, and avoid selection and evolution of herbicide resistant weed communities consisting of few problem species.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION

Report on the expected efficacy of spatial deployment strategies and integrated disease management for combating epidemics and resistance development in main plant pathogens in Europe, focus on cereal rusts and septoria
Parameterization and test of pathosystem-specific multi-scale model trains for simulating the epidemiology, dispersal and evolution of two key airborne pathogens of wheat in Europe
Scenarios for durable deployment of host plant resistance and sustainable use of fungicides, mitigating risks of development of pathogen superstrains that break host plant resistances and/or are resistant to agrochemicals.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION

Report on the co-evolution of resistant and susceptible weed biotypes in herbicide free maize and wheat fields
Novel data on the impact of no or low herbicide input IWM strategies on the survival of herbicide resistant weed biotypes in maize and wheat based systems, to elucidate the trade-off between environmental benefits and risks of evolution towards resistance.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION

Formulation and assessment of improved BCAs (diversified granulosis virus preparations to overcome the problem of virus resistant codling moth) and report of conditions of deployment ensuring durable efficiency
Identification-selection of new BCAs overcoming the resistance of crop pests and diseases, and with lower risk of loss of efficiency.
Generic method to ensure a durable efficacy of BCAs on target pests and to develop new BCAs by selection on non permissive hosts to be included in the design of innovative IPM solutions.
ALREADY AVAILABLE ON THE WEBSITE IN PUBLICATIONS SECTION

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ 2007-2013) under the grant agreement n°265865- PURE